Extension Publications

  • Abiotic Injuries and Disorders of Turfgrasses in Georgia
    • Turfgrass stands can be injured and damaged by biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) agents. Biotic agents include pathogens (fungi, bacteria, viruses, phytoplasma, mollicutes) and pests such as nematodes, insects, mites, mollusks and vertebrates (e.g., rodents, birds etc). Abiotic agents or factors include environmental conditions such as extreme temperatures; excess or deficient water, light or nutrients; soil compaction; and abnormal conditions such as drought, flooding and/or adverse cultural practices.

  • Annual Bluegrass Control Programs for Georgia Lawns
    • Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is the most problematic winter weed of lawns in Georgia. Plants have a light green color, coarse leaf texture, and produce unsightly seedheads. Annual bluegrass germinates in fall, overwinters in a vegetative state, and resumes active growth in spring.

  • Armyworms in Sod
    • There is considerable confusion regarding the life cycle and timing of fall armyworm infestation in turfgrass. It is not unusual for fall armyworms to infest newly planted sod in a home landscape, especially during late summer to fall. When fall armyworm infestation is detected, sod producers are often blamed for selling fall armyworm-infested sod. The reality, however, is that not all fall armyworm problems originate from sod farms but instead begin near the home landscape. This Extension circular will clarify the confusion that exists among homeowners and landscape industry based on biology and seasonality of fall armyworm in Georgia. The publication also discusses the possible management strategies to mitigate fall armvworm infestation.

  • Centipedegrass Decline
    • Failure to green-up in the spring or successful green-up followed by decline and death in late spring and summer is a problem that can be encountered in centipedegrass-growing areas.

  • Controlling Crabgrass and Goosegrass with Resistance to Sethoxydim and other ACCase-Inhibitors in Georgia Turf
    • Sethoxydim has been widely used for grassy weed control in centipedegrass lawns, roadsides, and sod farms. Decades of exclusive sethoxydim use in Georgia have led to the emergence of ACCase-resistant goosegrass and southern crabgrass in turf. This publication covers the development, detection, and control of ACCase-resistance crabgrass and goosegrass for professional turfgrass managers.

  • Controlling Moss and Algae in Turf
    • Occasionally, turfgrass areas begin to thin out and moss and algae start to form. These primitive plants develop because conditions for growing dense, healthy turf have declined.

  • Designing, Constructing and Maintaining Bermudagrass Sports Fields
    • A must-have publication for those involved with designing, constructing, and/or maintaining football or soccer fields and baseball or softball diamonds. Topics include field drainage, irrigation, turf establishment, grow-in, cultural practices, overseeding, pest control, preparations for special events, and renovating damaged areas.

  • Dollar Spot of Turfgrasses in Georgia: Identification and Control
    • Dollar spot is an ever-present turfgrass disease that affects all warm and cool season grasses in the state of Georgia. The publication contains important information on the biology of the causal agent, detail description of the disease symptoms (aided by high quality-detailed pictures), relevant up-to-date information on conditions favoring the disease, as well as cultural, genetic and chemical methods of control. The publication is intended for turfgrass professionals, consultants, county faculty, homeowners and general public.

  • Grasscycling: Let the Clippings Fall Where They May
    • Grasscycling is the natural recycling of grass clippings by leaving them on the lawn after mowing. Grasscycling saves time, effort and, when done properly, is good for the environment and health of the grass.

  • Gray Leaf Spot in Georgia Turfgrass: Identification and Control
    • In the state of Georgia, gray leaf spot (GLS) primarily affects St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) and is particularly chronic and damaging in the coastal areas of the state. Sporadic incidences in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) are observed annually in the Piedmont region, mainly affecting heat-stressed turf. In south-central Georgia, gray leaf spot is most active from June through August, although warm springs can bring about the disease earlier in the year.

  • Identification and Control of Rhizoctonia Large Patch in Georgia
    • Rhizoctonia large patch is the most common and severe disease of warm season grasses (bermudagrass, centipedegrass, seashore paspalum, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass) across the state of Georgia. Due to spring and fall disease-promoting environmental conditions across Georgia coinciding with grasses leaving and/or entering dormancy, large patch can appear in warm season grasses in various grass-growing settings, including home lawns, landscapes, sports fields, golf courses, and sod farms.

  • Identification and Control of Spring Dead Spot in Georgia
    • Spring dead spot (SDS) is a persistent and destructive disease of bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.) in Georgia. The disease can be problematic on lawns, landscapes, golf courses (bermudagrass greens, tees and fairways) and sports fields. The disease is particularly prevalent and damaging in north Georgia, especially in the Piedmont region. However, SDS can be observed throughout the state after harsh winters and in areas where bermudagrass has been exposed to freezing temperatures for extended periods of time.

  • Lespedeza Identification and Control in Turfgrass
    • Common lespedeza (Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schind syn. Lespedeza striata) is a freely branched, summer annual legume that is a problematic weed in lawns and other turf areas.

  • Management of Turfgrass Insect Pests and Pollinator Protection
    • Turfgrass is an important component of many landscapes. Research has shown that landscapes support diverse, abundant, and intact bee communities in New York, California, and Ohio. In fact, the abundance and diversity of bees visiting home landscapes have been observed to approach, and even exceed, numbers in nearby natural and/or agricultural systems. If the turfgrass has been treated or is being treated with insecticides, the pollinators can be exposed directly or indirectly to the insecticides on the weeds. This can cause lethal or sublethal effects on these pollinators. The guidelines in this publication will reduce insecticide exposure to pollinators as they seek nectar and pollen from plants around lawns.

  • Mole Crickets in Turf
    • Mole crickets are serious pests of Georgia turf. Estimates of mole cricket losses in commercial, recreational and residential sod now exceed $20 million annually. Weather and soil conditions in Georgia’s Coastal Plain region are ideal for mole crickets, and damage continues to increase.

  • Sod Webworms: Biology and Management in Turfgrass
    • Sod webworms are a serious pest of turfgrass in Georgia. There is limited information available to the green industry and the public about the general biology, ecology, and management of this pest. This publication includes photos of sod webworms, their life cycle, and management options so that landscape industry professionals and homeowners can learn about the pest sufficiently to manage it.

  • Southern Chinch Bug: Biology and Management in Turfgrass
    • The southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber, is a serious insect pest of turfgrass, especially St. Augustinegrass, in Georgia. Bermudagrass, centipedegrass, and zoysiagrass are also attacked by southern chinch bug. They feed on grass using their piercing and sucking mouthparts. Affected turfgrass can form yellow to brown patches that are sometimes mistaken as indicators of disease or drought stress.

  • Take-All Root Rot of Warm-Season Grasses
    • Take-all root rot (TARR) has emerged as a destructive disease in central, south and coastal Georgia. TARR affects all warm-season turfgrasses in Georgia, but it is more common and severe in St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum). This publication contains important information on the biology of the causal agent, detailed descriptions of the disease symptoms (aided by high-quality, detailed pictures), relevant up-to-date information on conditions favoring the disease, and cultural, genetic and chemical methods of control.

  • Turfgrass Diseases in Georgia: Identification and Control
    • The publications is a comprehensive guide to identifying and controlling turfgrass diseases in Georgia.

  • Turfgrass Diseases: Quick Reference Guide
    • Causal agent, susceptible turfgrasses, conditions promoting disease, symptoms and control of brown patch, dollar spot, Pythium Helminthosporium leaf spot, fading out, gray leaf spot, fairy ring, take-all root rot, rust, slime mold, and nematodes.

  • Two-Lined Spittlebug: Biology and Management in Turfgrass
    • The two-lined spittlebug is an important insect pest of turfgrass in Georgia. It attacks all turfgrass species, but centipedegrass is the most susceptible to spittlebug infestation.

  • Virginia Buttonweed Identification and Control in Turfgrass
    • Virginia buttonweed (Diodia virginiana L.) is a troublesome broadleaf weed in turfgrass throughout the southeastern United States. Virginia buttonweed is a deep-rooted perennial with prostrate or spreading branches. It usually proliferates in moist to wet areas and can tolerate mowing heights as low as one-half inch.

  • Weeds of Southern Turfgrasses
    • This is a guide for identification of weeds in the southern United States that will be a valuable resource for golf course superintendents, lawn care companies, roadside managers, sod growers, recreational facility managers, chemical company representatives, Extension agents, vocational agricultural teachers and turfgrass students. The book was developed specifically for turfgrass managers; however, it will be useful to anyone interested in identifying weeds of Southern turfgrasses.

  • White Grub Pests of Turfgrass
    • White grubs are the larvae of scarab beetles. All are C-shaped, white to dirty white in color, with a brownish head and legs. Usually, they have a darker grey area at the tip of the abdomen. The adults are medium-sized beetles that feed on a variety of trees and shrubs.